The volatilomic signatures of AGS, SNU-1, CLS-145 and HGC-27 gastric cancer cell lines 

Daria Slefarska-Wolak (1-2), Christine Heinzle (4,6), Andreas Leiherer (4-6), Axel Muendlein (4), Linda Mezmale (7), Marcis Leja (7-9), Alejandro H. Corvalan (10), Gidi Shani (11), Chris A. Mayhew (1,3), Hossam Haick (11), Pawel Mochalski (1-2)

(1) Institute for Breath Research, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck and Dornbirn, Austria;

(2) Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland;

(3) Tiroler Krebsforschungsinstitut (TKFI), Innsbruck, Austria;

(4) Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment (VIVIT), Feldkirch, Austria;

(5) Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Liechtenstein;

(6) Medical Central Laboratories, Feldkirch, Austria;

(7) Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine & Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia;

(8) Digestive Diseases Centre GASTRO, Riga, Latvia;

(9) Riga East University Hospital, Riga, Latvia;

(10) Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS),
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile;

(11) Department of Chemical Engineering and Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technicon – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel 

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the human body develop a distinctive chemical pattern that can potentially be used in the diagnosis of gastric cancer and other diseases. The latest research strongly suggests that VOCs form chemical signatures that manifest a distinct and instantaneous changes when various abnormal processes, including cancer, are occurring in the human body. In this study, the strategic goal is to identify the volatilomic signatures of four gastric cancer cell lines and highlight possible differences between their volatilomic patterns. VOCs emitted by four human gastric cancer cell lines, AGS, CLS-145, HGC-27 and SNU-1, and two non-tumorigenic cell lines, HSEC and GES-1 were captured from the headspace using HS needle trap extraction and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twelve VOCs were found to be consumed (e.g., heptanal, 2-pentylfuran, benzaldehyde and DMDS) and fifteen released (e.g., ethyl propanoate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-nonanone and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) by the CLS-145, HGC-27 and HSEC cell lines. Moreover, ten VOCs were found to be metabolized (e.g., 2-ethylfuran, 6-methyl-2-heptanone and ethyl benzoate) and thirty-five volatiles emitted (e.g., 3-pentanone, 1,1-diethoxyethane and cyclohexanol) by AGS, SNU-1 and GES-1 cell lines. AGS and HGC-27 cell lines exhibit increased production of ketones with an odd number of carbons. CLS-145 and SNU-1 cell lines demonstrate increased production of esters and decreased production of alcohols. Each of the gastric cancer cell lines has its individual metabolic pattern. The results from this study provide evidence that gastric cancer alters the VOC profiles of gastric cell lines. Thus, our study demonstrates that VOC analysis of different human excretions, such as breath or urine, has potential for use as a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.




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